What to do for a Dying and Dead Person
1. Gently but firmly advise and prompt the dying person to say the Shahaadah - the declaration: Laa ilaaha illa-Allah, which means there is no true god except Allah. This prompting in Arabic is known as Talqeen. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said: "Prompt your dying ones to say 'Laa ilaaha illa-Allah.' Whoever last words at the time of death was Laa ilaaha illa-Allah will enter Jannah (Paradise) one day, irrespective of what happens to him prior to that." The talqeen is necessary only when the dying person is unable to utter the shahaadah.
Muslims are also encouraged to be present when non-Muslims are dying in order to present Islam to them. This permission is conditioned by the absence of any signs of shirk or acts of disobedience to Allah. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) visited a Jewish youth who used to serve the Prophet (s.a.w) during his fatal illness. He (s.a.w) sat by his head and said to him: "Embrace Islam, embrace Islam." He looked at his father as if to take his permission. His father said: "Obey Abu Al-Qaasim (i.e. Muhammad)." He took his advice and died immediately thereafter. The Prophet (s.a.w) said: "All praise be to Allah who has saved him from the Fire," and commanded his companions to pray the funeral prayer over him.
2. It is recommended to supplicate and say good words aloud in the presence the one who is dying. These positive words make the process of dying easier, and recovery from illness more bearable. The Prophet (s.a.w) said: "If you are in the presence of a sick or dying person, you should say good things, for verily the Angels say 'Aameen' to whatever you say."
The practice of reciting Surat Yasin in the presence of the dying person or dead person is based on weak prophetic reports, having no basis in the authentic Sunnah. Neither the Prophet (s.a.w) nor his companions did it, or recommended that it be done. Those who observe the practice of reciting Yasin over the dead do so in light of the hadith: "Yasin is the heart of the Qur'an. Whoever recites it seeking the pleasure of Allah and the Hereafter will receive Allah's forgiveness. So recite it to your dead." Concerning this hadith, Ad-Dar al-Qutni is reported to have said: "In the chain of narrators of this hadith there is confusion. Its text is obscure and is not correct." Another practice which has no foundation in the practice of the Prophet (s.a.w) and his companions, is turning the body of one who is dying so that he or she faces the Qiblah (i.e. the Ka'bah in Makkah). Turning the body became a custom after the time of the Prophet's companions, but was objected to by leading scholars of that time.

3. After a person's soul leaves his body, a person from amongst those who are present should close the eyes of the dead person if they were open at the time of death. The Prophet (s.a.w) said: "When the soul is taken, the eyesight follows it." Also, the entire body of the deceased should be covered, except for the one who dies in a state of Ihraam - that is, whilst performing Hajj or 'Umrah, in which case the head and face should not be covered.

4. The relatives of the deceased must hasten in paying back any debts from whatever wealth he or she has left behind, even if it means that all of their wealth will be exhausted. Jabir ibn 'Abdullah reported that after a man once died, he was washed, shrouded, embalmed, and placed where the funerals are usually placed for the prayer. The Prophet (s.a.w) was invited to perform the funeral prayer. He came in, took a few steps, stopped and asked: "Perhaps your friend owes some debt?" He was told: "Yes, two dinars." So he moved back and said: "You pray for your friend." Abu Qatadah (r.a) said: "O Messenger of Allah, I will take care of the two dinars."… The Prophet (s.a.w) prayed the funeral prayer for him. The following day, the Prophet (s.a.w) met Abu Qatadah and asked him: "What happened with the two dinars?" He replied, "O Allah's Messenger, he only died yesterday." On the next day, he (s.a.w) asked him the same and was informed that they had been paid off. So the Prophet (s.a.w) said: "It is now only that his skin has cooled down (i.e. from the punishment." This hadith indicates that paying the deceased's debts benefit him after death.

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